عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aim: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is an inherited neurological disorder which has not disappeared in adulthood and is known as an important disease. This disease especially causes a lot of emotional, social, educational, and employment problems in students. So, the present study was conducted to examine the symptoms of ADHD in adults at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.
Materials and Methods: The sample was 230 students at Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, selected based on convenience sampling method. All the participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and the Conners questionnaire to determine their Adult ADHD.
Results: The overall prevalence of ADHD was 31% with the score ≤T 55 and 8.9% with the score≤ T65. The level of ADHD in the subscale C (Nshanhhaykly hyperactivity/inattention), with a frequency of 29% for cut-off point ≤T 55 and 9.5% for cut-off point ≤ T65, had the highest frequency.
Conclusion: Due to the significant amount of this disorder in the students, it seems that screening programs should be considered among students. Also, further investigations are necessary in order to help improve their performance and relationships.
10. Rabiner DL, Anastopoulos AD, Costello J, Hoyle RH, Swartzwelder HS. Adjustment to college in students with ADHD. J AttenDisord. 2008 May;11(6):689-99. ##
11. Faigel HC. Attention deficit disorder in college students: facts, fallacies and treatment. J Am Coll Health. 1995 Jan;43(4):147-55. ##
12. Spencer, T. J., Biederman, J. & Mick, E. Attention – Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis, Lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Journal ofPediatric Psychology 2007; 32 (6), 631-642. ##
13. Blase,S.L.,Adrianne,N.,Gilbert,A.D.,Anastopoulos,A.E.,Costello,E.J.Rick,H.,Swartzweder,S.&,R.H.,Rabiner.D.L.(2009).Self-Reported ADHD and Adjustment in college,Cross-Sectional an Longitudinal Findings. Journal of Attention Disorders, 3,297-309. ##
14. Murphy ,K.R., Barkley ,R.A.,& Bush ,T. Young adults with attention deficithyperactivitydisorder:subtype differences in comorbidity , educational , and clinicalhistory. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 2002; 190,147-157. ##
15. Shaw – Zirt ,B., Popali – Lehane ,L., Chaplin ,W.,& Bergman ,A. Adjustment, social skills, and self – esteem in college students with symptoms of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders 2005; 8,109-120. ##
16. Glutting JJ, Youngstrom EA, Watkins MW. ADHD and college students: exploratory and confirmatory factor structures with student and parent data. Psychol Assess. 2005 Mar;17(1):44- 55. ##
17. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;163(4):716-23. ##
18. Faigel HC. Attention deficit disorder in college students: facts, fallacies and treatment. J Am Coll Health. 1995 Jan;43(4):147-55. ##
19. Kollins SH, McClernon FJ, Fuemmeler BF. Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(10):1142-7. ##
20. Abedi S, Shirazi E, Hajebi A. Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder more common in substance dependency?. IJPCP. 2007;13(3):227-31.[In Persian] ##
21. Arabgoul F, Hayati M, Hadid M. Prevalence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in group of students Persian. New CognSci 2004; 6(1,2): 73-77. ##
22. SadeghiMovahed F., Molavi P., Samadzadeh M., Shahbazzadegan B., AskariMoghadam R. Prevalence of ADHD among the Students Residing in Dormitory of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2013;12: 87-94. [In Persian] ##
23. Barbaresi, W., Katusic, S., Colligan, R., Weaver, A., Pankratz, V., Mrazek, D., Jacobsen, S. How common is attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder? Towards resolution of the controversy: results from a population-based study. Acta Pediatric Supply 2004; 93, 55-9. ##
24. Ohlmeier MD, Peters K, TeWildt BT, Zedler M, Ziegenbein M, Wiese B, et al. Comorbidity of alcohol and substance dependence with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Alcohol 2008; 43: 300-304. ##
25. Lehner-Dua LL. The effectiveness of Russell A. Barkley's parent training program on parents with school-aged children who have ADHD on their perceived severity of ADHD, stress, and sense of competence. New York: Hofstra University; 2001. ##
26. Taylor, A., Deb, S., & Unwin, G. Scales for the identification of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD):A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2011;32.924-938. ##
27. Jazaieri F. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Adult Conners (Dissertation). ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences; 2013. [In Persian] ##
28. Atwoli L, Owiti P, Manguro G, Ndambuki D. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2011 Sep; 14(4):286-9. ##
29. Tuttle JP, Scheurich NE, Ranseen J. Prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and nonmedical prescription stimulant use in medical students. Acad Psychiatry. 2010 May-Jun;34(3):220-3. ##
30. Dupaul GJ, Weyandt LL, O'Dell SM, Varejao M. College students with ADHD: current status and future directions. J AttenDisord. 2009; 13(3): 234-50. ##
31. Viava G, De Lenclave MB, Bailly D. Treatment of comorbid opiate addiction and attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder (residual type) with moclobamide: A case report. ProgNeuropsychopharmacolBiol psychiatry 2002; 26(3): 609-11. ##
32. Weiss M, Murray C, Weiss G. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current concepts. Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2002;8(2):99-111. ##
33. Shifrin JG, Proctor BE, Prevatt FF. Work performance differences between college students with and without ADHD. J Attention Disord 2010; 13:489-90. ##
34. Mathai A, A study on assessment of knowledge and practice of school teachers regarding Management of specific learning disorders among children in a selected school at banagalore 2013, University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru. ##